Category:List of Linux Programmes
From Christoph's Personal Wiki
This is a list of Linux programmes. I use many of these programmes on a daily basis. However, I have not mastered all of these just yet. I will provide links to individual programmes for further information, tutorials, and examples.
Some of these programs are standard utilities that will be found on any Unix or Unix-like operating system; indeed a system without such basic components as ls or sh could scarcely be described as truly Unix-like. Others are more special-purpose and may not be installed by default. Finally, some items on this list are simply separate applications which happen to have been written for Unix.
- dirname – Strip non–directory suffixes from a path
- dd – Convert and copy a file (Disk Dump)
- echo – Print to standard output
- env – Show environment variables; run a program with altered environment variables
- nohup – Run a command with immunity to hangups outputting to non–tty
- file (or stat) – Determine the type of a file
- strip – Discard symbols from object files
- uptime – Print how long the system has been running
- sh – The Bourne shell, the standard Unix shell
- fuser – Identify processes by files or sockets
- newgrp (or sg) – Log in to a new group
- pathchk – Check the validity/portability of filenames
- logger – Make entries in the system log
- ipcs – Provide information on IPC facilities
- ipcrm – Remove a message queue, semaphore set or shared memory id
- date – Print or set the system date and/or time
- uname – Print assorted system statistics
- dmesg – Print the kernel message buffer
Processes and tasks management
- nice – Alter priorities for processes
- time – Time a command
- top – Produce a dynamic list of all resident processes
- wait – Wait for the specified process
- renice – Alter the priorities of an already running process
- chroot – Change the system root directory for all child processes
- timex – Time process shell execution, measure process data and system activity
- kill – Send a signal to process, or terminate a process (by PID)
- killall – Terminate all processes (in Linux, it's kill by name)
- crontab – Crontab file editor
- at – Single–time command scheduler
- cron – Periodic command scheduler
- daemonic – Interface to daemon init scripts
- sleep – Delay for specified time
- pgrep – Find PIDs of processes by name
- pidof – Linux equivalent of pgrep
- pkill – Send a signal to process, or terminate a process (by name). Equivalent to Linux killall
- ps – Report process status
- anacron – Periodic command scheduler
User management and support
- su – Start a new process (defaults to shell) as a different user (defaults to root)
- logname – Print user's login name
- passwd – User and group entries for daemons
- write – Send a message to another user
- mesg – Control write access to your terminal
- who – Show who is logged on
- w – Show logged-in users and their current tasks
- id – Print real/effective UIDs/GIDs
- man – Manual browser
- locale – Get locale specific information
- localedef – Compile locale definitions
- sudo – Used to grant permission to carry out specific operations for specific users or groups.
- stty – Change and print terminal line settings
- tty – Print filename of terminal connected to standard input
- tput – Initialize a terminal/query terminfo database
Files and texts
- chgrp – Change the group of a file or directory
- chmod – Change the permissions of a file or directory
- chown – Change the owner of a file or directory
- cp – Copy a file or directory to another location
- df – Report disk space
- du – Calculate used disk space
- fdupes – Find or remove duplicate files within a directory
- find – Search for files through a directory hierarchy
- fsck – Filesystem check
- ln – Link one file/directory to another
- ls – List directory contents
- mkdir – Make a directory
- mkfifo – Make a named pipe
- mount – Mount a filesystem
- mv – Move or rename a file or directory
- pwd – Print the current working directory
- rm – Delete a file or directory tree
- rmdir – Delete an empty directory
- touch – Create a new file or update its modification time
- tree – Print a depth-indented tree of a given directory
- unlink – System call to remove a file or directory
- lsof – list open files
Archivers and compression
- afio – Compatible superset of cpio with added functionality
- ar – Maintain, modify, and extract from archives. Now largely obsoleted by tar
- bzip2 – Block–sorting file compressor
- compress – Traditional compressor using the LZW algorithm
- cpio – A traditional archiving tool/format
- gzip – The gzip file compressor
- pax – POSIX archive tool that handles multiple formats.
- tar – Tape ARchiver, concatenates files
- uncompress – Uncompresses files compressed with compress.
- zcat – Prints files to stdout from gzip archives without unpacking them to separate file(s)
- awk – A pattern scanning and processing language
- banner – Creates ascii art version of an input string for printing large banners
- cat – Concatenate files to standard output
- cksum – Print the CRC checksum and bytecount of a file (see also MD5)
- cmp – Compare two files byte for byte
- comm – Sort two files and compare them line for line
- csplit – Split a file into sections determined by context lines
- cut – Remove sections from each line of a file or standard input
- diff – Compare two files line by line
- expand – Convert tabs to spaces
- fc – Processes the command history list
- fold – Wrap each input line to fit within the given width
- grep – Print lines matching a pattern (now largely superseded by egrep)
- head – Output the first parts of a file
- iconv – Convert the encoding of the specified files
- join – Join lines of two files on a common field
- less – Improved more–like text pager
- merge – Three way merge of files (see also paste)
- more – Pager
- nkf – Convert Japanese characters
- nl – Number the lines of a file
- od – Dump files in various formats, e.g. octal
- paste – Merge lines of files
- patch – Change files based on a patch file
- rev – reverse lines of a file
- sed – Stream EDitor
- sort – Sort lines of text files
- split – Split a file into pieces
- tac – cat in reverse — displays files to standard output in reverse order starting at the end of the file
- tail – Output the tail end of files
- tee – Read from standard input, write to standard output and files
- tr – Translate characters
- tsort – Perform a topological sort
- unexpand – Convert spaces to tabs
- uniq – Remove duplicate lines from a sorted file
- uudecode – Decodes a binary file that was used for transmission using electronic mail
- uuencode – Encodes a binary file for transmission using electronic mail
- wc – Word/line/byte count
- ed – Traditional line-based Unix text editor
- emacs – Powerful Lisp–based text editor and general computing environment
- ex – Text editor, often a symbolic link to vi (or vim) which causes it to run in ex emulation mode
- NEdit – The multi-purpose X11 editor
- nano – Clone of pico
- pico – PIne's message COmposition editor
- sam – Bitmapped text editor with client-server design, by Rob Pike
- vi – Visual text editor
- vim – Vi IMproved, vi clone with syntax highlighting and many other enhancements
- XEmacs – Popular version of emacs that is derived from GNU emacs
Communication, networking and remote access
- Apache webserver
- NFS – Network filesystem
- rsh, SSH, telnet – Remote consoles
- Samba – SMB and CIFS client and server for UNIX
- talk – Talk to another logged-in user
- uux – Remote command execution over UUCP
- uustat – a Basic Networking Utilities (BNU) command that displays status information about several types of BNU operations
- elm – Unix mail utility program
- mail – Original Email utility
- mailx – Improved Email utility
- Mutt – Curses based mail reader
Network system services
- xinetd – replacement for inetd
- fingerd – a daemon for finger – a program used return a human-readable status report on either the system at the moment or a particular person in depth
- inetd – a daemon on many Unix systems that manages Internet services
- dhcpd – the DHCP daemon
- ifconfig – a tool used to configure a network interface for TCP/IP
- ping – a network tool that tests of whether a particular host is up and reachable on the network
- pppd – Point-to-Point protocol daemon
- tcpd – Secures programs launched from inetd
Network monitoring and security
- Ethereal – a protocol analyzer, or "packet sniffer", similar to tcpdump, that adds a GUI frontend, and more sorting and filtering options
- Tethereal – text based version of "Ethereal"
- ettercap – a tool for network protocol analysis
- John the Ripper – password cracking software
- Nmap – free port scanning software
- Nessus – a comprehensive open-source network vulnerability scanning program
- SATAN – the Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks – a testing and reporting tool that collects information about networked hosts
- Snort – an open source network intrusion detection system
- tcpdump – a computer network debugging tool that intercepts and displays TCP/IP packets being transmitted or received
- awk – Standard Unix scripting and text manipulation tool.
- perl – Perl scripting language.
- Python – Python scripting language.
- bash – Bourne Again SHell, standard shell and a script interpreter on Linux systems.
Compilers and programming tools
The classic UNIX environment includes a basic set of broadly available programming tools, but in the 21st century this classic environment is increasingly rare, as Unix-like operating system distributions diversify. Some include vastly more, and more modern and sophisticated, programming tools and environments, whereas others, focussing on serving a less technical audience, may disinclude even the most rudimentary programming utilities. Commands most familiar to a prior generation of UNIX users include:
- admin – Administer SCCS files.
- c99 – C programming language.
- cc – C compiler.
- ld – Program linker.
- ctags – Generate tags file summarising location of objects in source files.
- distcc – Tool for distributing compiles across multiple machines.
- f77 – Fortran 77 compiler.
- gcc – GNU Compiler Collection C frontend (also known as GNU C Compiler)
- dbx – (System V and BSD) Symbolic debugger.
- gdb – GNU symbolic debugger.
- lex – Lexical scanner generator.
- yacc – LALR parser generator.
- m4 – Macro language.
- make – Automate builds.
- nm – List symbols from object files.
- rmdel – remove a delta from an SCCS file.
- strip – Remove debugging symbols from object files.
- strace – (Linux) or truss (Solaris) Trace system calls with their arguments and signals. Useful debugging tool, but does not trace calls outside the kernel, in the address space of the process(es) being watched.
- ltrace – (Linux) Trace dynamic library calls in the address space of the watched process.
- ktrace – (BSD) Analogous to strace.
- expr – Evaluate expressions
- exit – Exit shell, optionally with return code
- return – Return from shell function
- false – Return a value that evaluates as False
- true – Return a value that evaluates as True
- xargs – Build and execute command lines from standard input
- basename – Returns the final component of a path
- batch – Runs jobs when the system load level permits
- unset – Unsets a shell variable
- break – terminate a loop before maturity
- continue – Skip the current iteration of a loop
- strings – Print strings of printable characters found in a file
- test – Test an expression
- hash – Command that remembers or reports command path names
- X11 – Graphical user interface (GUI)
Desktops/Graphical User Interfaces
- Blackbox and its variants (including Fluxbox and Waimea)
- CDE – Common Desktop Environment, most commonly found on proprietary UNIX systems
- Enlightenment – an open source window manager for the X Window System
- Fvwm and its variant Fvwm95, which has been modified to behave like Windows 95
- GNOME – GNU Network Object Model Environment
- IceWM – ICE Window Manager
- JWM – Joe's Window Manager
- KDE – K Desktop Environment
- Quartz Compositor – Apple's GUI interface for the Darwin BSD based operating system Mac OS X
- Window Maker
- WMI – Window Manager Improved
- XFce – a desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms
- bash – Bourne Again SHell, standard shell on Linux systems.
- csh – C shell.
- ksh – Korn shell, standard shell on most proprietary Unix systems.
- rc – originally written for Plan 9.
- sh – Bourne shell, only shell present on all UNIX and Unix-like systems.
- tcsh – TENEX C shell, standard shell on BSD systems.
- zsh – Z shell.
- ClamAV – E-mail virus scanner.
- Enigmail – Graphical interface to gpg for Mozilla Application Suite and Mozilla Thunderbird.
- gpg – GNU Privacy Guard, a complete and free replacement for PGP (to do file and email encryption and signature)
- openssl – Secure Sockets Layer and general crypto library.
- pinepgp – Filters which enable pine to use signed/encrypted email.
- mcrypt -- Replacement for the legacy crypt program, can also make OpenPGP-compatible files.
Linux specific programs
- apt – Front–end for dpkg or rpm
- debconf – Debian package configuration management system
- drakconf – Front–end configuration utility for Mandriva Linux
- dpkg – The Debian package manager
- emerge – A frontend to portage
- rpm – Originally the package manager for Red Hat Linux, now used by several distributions including Mandriva Linux
- portage – The Gentoo Linux package manager
- urpmi – Front–end to rpm, used by Mandriva Linux
- pacman – A package manager used primarily by Arch Linux
- YaST - System management utility mainly used by SuSE
- amaroK – Audio jukebox
- Ardour – Digital audio workstation for multitrack HD recording and editing
- Audacity – Sound recording and editing program
- Baudline – Audio recorder, analyzer, and player
- GIMP – Powerful image manipulation package
- GStreamer – Plugin-based multimedia framework
- ImageMagick – Image conversion library
- Inkscape – Vector graphics editor
- mpg123 – MP3 player
- MPlayer – Video player
- Rhythmbox – Audio jukebox similar to Apple's iTunes
- Rosegarden – Powerful digital audio workstation
- SoX – Sound conversion tool
- Totem – Media player
- transcode – Flexible command-line media encoding tool
- VLC media player – Video player
- xine – Video Player
- XMMS – Winamp-like multimedia player
- Dillo – Extremely light–weight web browser
- Galeon – Light–weight old GNOME web browser
- Epiphany – Light–weight GNOME web browser
- Konqueror – KDE web browser
- Links – Console based web browser
- ELinks – Enhanced links
- lynx – Console based web browser
- Mozilla Application Suite – Graphical cross platform web browser & email client
- Mozilla Firefox – Extensible Web browser from Mozilla
- Mozilla Thunderbird – Extensible Email client from Mozilla
- Groff – Traditional typesetting system
- LaTeX – Popular TeX macro package for higher–level typesetting
- lp – Print a file (on a line printer)
- Passepartout – Desktop publishing program
- pr – Convert text files for printing
- printf – Format and print data
- Scribus – Desktop publishing program
- TeX – High–quality macro–based typesetting system
- troff – The original and standard Unix typesetting system
Database management systems
Mathematical and scientific software
- maxima – Symbol manipulation program.
- units – Unit conversion program.
- octave – Numerical computing language (mostly compatible with Matlab) and environment.
- R – Statistical programming language.
- dc – Reverse-Polish desk calculator which supports unlimited precision arithmetic
- fortune – Fortune cookie program that prints a random quote
- bc – An arbitrary precision calculator language with syntax similar to the C programming language.
- cal – Displays a calendar
- Linux command line tools
- List of Unix daemons
- List of GNU packages
- List of open source software packages
- List of KDE applications
- List of GNOME applications
- FSF/UNESCO Free Software Directory – A catalog of useful free software
- Freshmeat software catalog – The Web's largest index of Unix and cross-platform software
- SourceForge – The world's largest development and download repository of Open Source code and applications
- Linux Links: Software – Linux software catalog
- Linux Online - Applications – Linux software catalog
- SuSE Linux Package Descriptions — by Novell
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