Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist or linguistician.
I am very interested in this field, but more of as a hobby than as a career. In any case, I will document what I learn about this field in this category.
I also speak a few languages and am learning more. Below is a list of the languages I speak either fluently or with a working knowledge (and continually improving):
- English (mother-tongue)
- German (college level)
- Spanish (college level)
George Orwell's writing advice
Note: From George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" (see also: wikipedia:Politics and the English Language for background information).
A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus:
- What am I trying to say?
- What words will express it?
- What image or idiom will make it clearer?
- Is this image fresh enough to have an effect?
And he will probably ask himself two more:
- Could I put it more shortly?
- Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly?
One can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases:
- Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
- Never use a long word where a short one will do.
- If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
- Never use the passive where you can use the active.
- Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
- Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
- The bandage was wound around the wound.
- The farm was used to produce produce.
- The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
- We must polish the Polish furniture.
- He could lead if he would get the lead out.
- The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.
- Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present.
- A bass was painted on the head of the bass drum
- When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.
- I did not object to the object.
- The insurance was invalid for the invalid.
- There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row.
- They were too close to the door to close it.
- The buck does funny things when the does are present.
- A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer line.
- To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow to sow.
- The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
- Upon seeing the tear in the painting I shed a tear.
- I had to subject the subject to a series of tests.
- How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend?
Useful language-learning sentences
see: How to Learn (But Not Master) Any Language in 1 Hour
- The apple is red.
- It is John's apple.
- I give John the apple.
- We give him the apple.
- He gives it to John.
- She gives it to him.
- I must give it to him.
- I want to give it to her.
- Fowler's Modern English Usage
- The King's English — by H.W. Fowler
- The Elements of Style (aka "Strunk & White")
- Plain Words — by Sir Ernest Gowers
- Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford
- The Oxford 3000 wordlist
- Free On-Line Dictionary of Philosophy (aka "FOLDOP")
- Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (aka "FOLDOC")
- Online Etymology Dictionary
- Word Spy
- Etymologically Speaking
- Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature: Etymologies
- AskOxford — a free online dictionary resource from OUP
- Linguistic Data Consortium
- The Link Grammar Parser — a syntactic parser of English, based on link grammar, an original theory of English syntax.
- The Latin Library
- Developing Linguistic Corpora: a Guide to Good Practice
- Wortschatz — Search in 17 Corpus-Based Monolingual Dictionaries (by the Universität Leipzig)
- UniLang Wiki — a database of language- and linguistic-related information
- WebCorp — The Web as a Corpus
- Calgary Corpus
- concordancer + utils — by Ralph Meyer of Princeton
- How To Name Your Company — (strong consonants: B, C, D, G, K, P, Q, T)
- Game of Circ
- SIGLEX Resource Links — by Special Interest Group on the Lexicon of the Association for Computational Linguistics
- How to punctuate a sentence
- NEGRA corpus — a syntactically annotated corpus of German newspaper texts
- liste_mots.txt — from lexique.org (~130k words)
- Word / letter frequencies
- Greek and Latin roots
- 50 Tools that can Improve your Writing Skills
- The Taxonomy of Logical Fallacies
- Balzac Text Data Mining
Wikipedia articles on Linguistics
- Oxford spelling
- Latin declension
- AntConc — a freeware concordance program for Linux developed by Laurence Anthony.
- Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
- Serial comma
- Split infinitive
- German spelling reform of 1996
- Zipf's law
- Index of coincidence
- Frequency analysis (cryptanalysis)
- Dependency grammar
- Incremental encoding
- Syllable coda
- Category:English words spelled with diacritics or ligatures
- Old English language (list of prepositions)
- List of English prepositions
- List of English irregular verbs
- List of frequently misused English words
- List of French phrases
- List of French phrases used by English speakers
- Glossary of French expressions in English
- French proverbs
- List of German expressions in English
- List of German words and phrases
- List of Greek phrases
- List of Latin abbreviations
- List of Latin phrases
- List of Latin words with English derivatives
- Internationally used French phrases
- The Unicode Character Code Charts By Script
- Unicode (UTF-8) test
- UTF-8 encoded sample plain-text file — original by Markus Kuhn, adapted for HTML by Martin Dürst.
- test page for UNICODE UTF-8 encoding — no longer maintained.
- 99 Problems
- P97 (**) Sudoku: Solving Every Sudoku Puzzle — by Peter Norvig; in Python
This category has only the following subcategory.
Pages in category "Linguistics"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total.