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This article will list my favourite Perl modules related to linguistics (or "Lingua"). Linguistics is a hobby of mine.


Stop words

see: wikipedia:Stop words, List of 319 stop words
a about above across adj after again against all almost alone along also 
although always am among an and another any anybody anyone anything anywhere 
apart are around as aside at away be because been before behind being below 
besides between beyond both but by can cannot could deep did do does doing done 
down downwards during each either else enough etc even ever every everybody 
everyone except far few for forth from get gets got had hardly has have having 
her here herself him himself his how however i if in indeed instead into inward 
is it its itself just kept many maybe might mine more most mostly much must 
myself near neither next no nobody none nor not nothing nowhere of off often on 
only onto or other others ought our ours out outside over own p per please plus 
pp quite rather really said seem self selves several shall she should since so 
some somebody somewhat still such than that the their theirs them themselves 
then there therefore these they this thorough thoroughly those through thus to 
together too toward towards under until up upon v very was well were what 
whatever when whenever where whether which while who whom whose will with
within without would yet young your yourself

Spelling rules

E Ending Rule
When a base word ends with an E and you add an ending that begins with a vowel, drop the E. Go to the Free Spelling Worksheet that teaches this spelling rule.
The CVC Rule
When a word that is 4 letters or less ends CVC, and the next ending begins with a V, you must double the final vowel. CVC + V = CVCCV
Doubling-letters: b, d, f, g, m, n, p, r, and t
Ignoring double: c, h, j, k, q, v, w, and x (and y)
Note: The C-V-C rule can be used only if the first letter of the suffix (the letters you are adding) is a vowel. For example:
add the suffix –ed, and we get regretted (double t).
add the suffix –ful, and we get regretful (NOT a double t).
Exceptions (incomplete): happened, traveled, orbited, edited, modeled, budgeted, gardened, visited, blossomed, benefited, conquered, ...
The Vowel Changers
When the letter Y or the letter W is at the end of a word, it acts like a vowel letter.
The Flighty Y Rule
When a word ends Consonant and a Y (C+Y) and you ad an ending there must be an I in the word. Either the Y changes to I (C+Y+___ = C+I+___) or the ending has an I and it becomes (C+Y+I = C+Y+I).
Plural Rules
To make a regular word plural, add a "S" If the word ends in the letter S, Z, X, SH, or CH, or a "C+Y" add an "ES"
The Disappearing E Rule
When a word ends with a W, and you ad the ending EN, drop the E.
The Appearing AL Rule
When a word ends with "IC" and you at the ending "LY" it must become "ICALLY"
Double the Fun Rule
When the ending of a word is a short base CVC rule, follow the CVC doubling rule.
The ION Rule
When a word ends in ION, another form of the word may end in OR.

Phonics rules

CVC Rule
In a word or syllable with a Consonant-Vowel-Consonant (cat, pup), the vowel is usually short.
CVCe Rule
In a word or syllable with a vowel followed by a consonant and ending in "e" (cape, tube), the vowel is usually long.
In a word or syllable with a double vowel (bait, goat), the first vowel is usually long and the second vowel is silent.
Y as Long "i" Rule
If "y" is the only vowel at the end of a one-syllable word (cry, buy), "y" has the long "i" sound.
Y as Long "e" Rule
If "y" is the only vowel at the end of a word with more than one syllable (baby, daddy), "y" usually has the long "e" sound. However, there can be exceptions (such as "rely" or "July").
Double Consonants Rule
If a word has consonants side by side (mommy, poppa, candy), the vowel is usually short.
Single Consonant Rule
If a word has a single consonant (baby, story), the vowel is usually long.
Soft "c" and "g" Rule
If "c" or "g" is followed by "e", "i", or "y" (face, giraffe, circus, gypsy, garage), the "c" or "g" is usually soft

External links